World War One, Remembrance Day and The Poppy
The battles of the First World War (WWI) devastated the countryside of Western Europe. One of the plants that survived the churned-up battlefields was the poppy. As the soldiers saw scarlet poppies bloom through the terrible destruction, they were encouraged to see that life could recover. One soldier, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae was inspired to write the poem, In Flanders Fields, in the spring of 1915.
“In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie,
In Flanders fields
Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields. “
Subsequently, Since WW1 the poppy has become the universal emblem of remembrance, symbolising the sacrifices that soldiers in past wars made for us.
The Selling of Poppies
In the United Kingdom, artificial poppies are sold by the Royal British Legion in the run-up to 11th November (Poppy Day). Importantly this is when the Armistice (an agreement to end the fighting) began at 11am on 11th November 1918. Furthermore, sales from the poppies go to providing financial, social and emotional support to British Armed Forces serving soldiers, former soldiers and their dependents. This year is the centenary of the UK Poppy Appeal.
The original Poppy Days were created by Madame Guerin to raise funds for the French widows and orphans of the War. In 1921 she took samples of her artificial poppies to the Royal British Legion and proposed an Inter-Allied Poppy Day during which all WW1 allied countries use artificial poppies as an emblem of remembrance.
The poppies would be made by French widows and orphans and raise funds for the families of the fallen as well as survivors of the conflict. Although the idea was initially not well received by the British public, the WW1 British Army commander Earl Haig was keen, and after that, when the Royal British Legion held its first Poppy Day on 11th November 1921, it was a great success. Those first poppies were made in France, but from 1922 British veterans made the poppies at the Richmond factory which now employs 50 ex-servicemen all year round. In 1926 Lady Haig’s Poppy Factory in Edinburgh was established to produce poppies for Scotland. Over 5 million Scottish poppies are made by hand each year.
The Poppy as Art
In 2014, artist Paul Cummins and designer Tom Piper created Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red, an installation that commemorates the centenary of the outbreak of WW1. 21,688 volunteers installed 888,246 ceramic poppies at the Tower of London, one for every British or Colonial life lost at the front during the war. The poppies were hand-made in Derby using techniques that were in use around WW1.
An estimated five million people visited the Tower to see the poppies. Following on from the display, some of the poppies were used to create the sculptures Wave and Weeping Window which toured the UK until November 2018, the centenary of the Armistice. Afterwards, all the poppies were sold and raised millions of pounds for charity. The War Poets Collection at Craiglockhart campus was lucky enough to secure one of the poppies, which is on display at the exhibition area. Make sure to see it next time you’re at Craiglockhart campus.
Read more about WW1 and the art mentioned here at librarysearch.napier.ac.uk
Read more on the War Poets- here on our blog:
By Vivienne Hamilton