Access the powerpoint slides at  (dropbox)

Some grading documents available without cost:

AHEC, “The illustrated guide to American hardwood lumber grades”, American Hardwood Export Council, 2017, [English]

Davies, I and Watt, G. “Making the grade, A guide to appearance grading UK grown hardwood timber”, Forestry Commission Scotland, 2005, [English]

FrenchTimber, “Grading of oak sawn timber”, FrenchTimber & Association for the Promotion of French Oak (APECF), 2012, [English]

ITTO, “Guyana timber grading rules, revision 2016”, ITTO project PD-687-13 technical report, 2016, [English]

NELMA, “2017 Standard grading rules for northeastern lumber”, Northeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association, 2017, [English]

NHLA, “Rules for the measurement and inspection of hardwood and cypress”, National Hardwood Lumber Authority, 2019, [English]

NLGA, “2017 Standard grading rules for Canadian lumber”, National Lumber Grades Authority, 2017, [English]

SPIB, “Export grading rules for southern pine lumber”, Southern Pine Inspection Bureau, 1981, [English]

WCLIB, “Standard No. 17 Grading Rules for West Coast Lumber”, West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau, 2018, [English]

Other references available without cost:

Eric Meier, “The wood database”, [English]

USDA “Wood Handbook : wood as an engineering material”, Forest Products Laboratory USDA Forest Service, FPL- GTR-190, 2010: 509, 2010, [English]

Ridley-Ellis, D., Stapel, P., & Baño, V. “Strength grading of sawn timber in Europe: an explanation for engineers and researchers”. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 74(3), 291-306, 2016, DOI: 10.1007/s00107-016-1034-1, [English]

Tissari, J., “Raising the standards – monitoring the technical and environmental standards of tropical timber products in international markets”, ITTO technical series #39, 2011, ISBN 4-902045-88-5, [English]

ITTO, “Lesser used tropical species, International Tropical Timber Organisation, [English]